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Textile Glossary

A

Accessories
Additional ornamentation to accompany the garment in order to create a certain look/image.(shoes, jewelries etc.)

Accordion
1x1 rib knit alternating with a 2x2 rib.

Acetate (fibre) (generic name)
The term used to describe fibres of cellulose ethanoate (acetate) wherein between 74% and 92% of the hydroxyl groups of the original cellulose are ethanoylated (acetylated). Purified cellulose is ethanoylated (acetylated)

Acrylic (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of recurring cyanoethene (acrylonitrile) groups.

Alginate (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres composed of metallic salts of alginic acid.

Angora
The hair of the angora rabbit. The origin of the angora breed ins unclear. It is believed to come from france, developed from a mutation in a wild rabbit, in the 18th century. Note: the hair of the angora goat is referred to as mohair.

Anidex (fibre)
A term used to describe fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that consists of at least 50% by mass of one or more esters of a monohydric alcohol and propenoic acid (acrylic acid).

Anti bacterial
Finish that makes a fabric resistant to the growth of bacteria.

Anti pill
A finish applied to fleece which involves shearing the surface so that the fabric is less likely to pill.

Atlas
A warp knit fabric in which a set of yarns shifts diagonally one wale per course for several courses , then returns to the original position.

Azlon (fibre) (usa)
A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is composed of any regenerated naturally occurring protein. The iso generic name is protein.

B

 

Backtanning
An after-treatment to improve the wet fastness of dyed or printed silk or nylon, using either natural or synthetic tanning agents.
Cotton with such a design.

Barrier fabric
Fabrics that are barriers to dust , dust mites and associated allergens.

Basic dye
A cationic dye characterized by its substantivity for basic-dyeable acrylic and basic-dyeable polyester fibres, especially the former. The term was originally applied to tannin-mordant cotton dyes.

Bast fibre
Fibre obtained from the stems of various plants.

Bias
Any direction in the fabric which does not exactly flow in the direction of the weft yarn (vertical yarns) or warp yarns (horizontal yarns) of a fabric. A true bias makes an angle of 45 degree across the length and width of a fabric, fabric cut on a bias has maximum stretch.

Bicomponent fibre
A man-made fibre having two distinct polymer components. Both components are themselves usually fibre forming. Wool and some other animal fibres are sometimes considered to be bicomponent.

Bleaching
The procedure of improving the whiteness of textile material, with or without the removal of natural colouring matter and/or extraneous substances, by a bleaching agent.

Blending
Process or processes concerned primarily with efficient mixing of various lots of fibres. Blending is normally carried out to mix fibres, which may be of different physical properties, market values, or colours.

Blinding
A marked and undesirable loss of lustre of fibres caused by wet processing.

Blitz
A light to medium weight woven fabric with a filament warp and spun weft. Often has a very fine crosswise rib. Common blends are acetate/rayon and polyester/rayon.

Bright
Descriptive of textile materials, particularly man-made fibres, the natural lustre of which has not been substantially reduced. Bright may denote the presence of a very small amount of delustrant, insufficient to reduce the lustre of the fibre significantly.

Burn out
A fabric made of 2 fibers then printed with a chemical that dissolves one of the fibers thus creating a design .Often done on velvet.

C

 

Cable stitch
A knit fabric stitch that produces a design that looks like a heavy cord- common in sweaters and hosiery.

Cabled yarn
Two or more folded yarns twisted together in one or more operations., note 1: combinations of folded yarn(s) and single yarn(s) may be described as cabled yarns, e.g., a single yarn twisted together with two folded yarns to give softness to the resulting yarn., note 2: in the tyre-yarn and tyre-cord sections of the.

Carded
A yarn in which the fibers have been partially straightened and cleaned prior to spinning. The yarn is generally coarser and more uneven than a combed yarn.

Carrier (fibre)
A fibre that is blended with the main constituent fibre to improve processing behavior.

Chenille
1. A yarn with fuzzy pile protruding from all sides . It has a velvety caterpillar -like appearance . ( the term chenille is derived from the french word for caterpillar)
2. A fabric made with chenille yarn.

Circular knit
Refers to fabrics knit on a circular knitting machine, i.e. One which has its needles arranged in a circle thus producing the fabric in tubular form . The fabrics may be sold tubular or slit and sold open width. A circular knitting machine may be used to produce full width fabrics or narrow shaped components such as for hosiery.

Clear
In synthetic fibres the term clear is commonly used to denote the absence of delustrant.

Coarse
Having thick yarns.

Coated
Refers to the application of material such as plastic resin, wax, oil, varnish or lacquer to the surface of the fabric . Application methods include dipping, spraying, brushing, calendering or knife coating . Coating is often applied to make a fabric water repellent or waterproof.

Combed
Refers to a process in the manufacture of cotton and other staple yarns. The fiber is combed to remove foreign matter and the shorter, undesirable fibers, leaving longer, more desirable fibers that become straightened & aligned in parallel before spinning into yarn. Combed yarns are finer, cleaner and more even than those that are not combed.

Combed yarn.
Yarn produced from fibres that have been carded (or prepared) and combed.

Combination yarn
A yarn in which there are dissimilar component yarns especially when these are of fibre and filaments.

Combing
The straightening and parallelizing of fibres and the removal of short fibres and impurities by using a comb or combs assisted by brushes and rollers.

Composite yarn
A yarn composed of both staple and continuous-filament components, e.g., core spun or wrap spun.

Compressive shrinkage
A process in which fabric is caused to shrink in length e.g., by compression. The process is often referred to as ccs (controlled compressive shrinkage).

Continuous-filament yarn; filament yarn
A yarn composed of one or more filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yarns of one or more filaments are usually referred to as monofilament or multifilament respectively.

Cop
A form of yarn package spun on a mule spindle. The term can also be used to describe a ring tube.

Cord
A term applied loosely to a variety of textile strands including
(a) Cabled yarns
(b) Plied yarns and
(c) In structures made by plaiting, braiding or knitting.

Corded
1. A fabric with a surface rib effect resulting from the use of a heavier or plied yarn together with finer yarns.
2. A yarn made from two or more finer yarns twisted together.

Cordon yarn
A two-ply union yarn made from a single cotton yarn and a single worsted or woollen yarn.

Core sampling
A method of taking representative samples from bales or packs of textile fibres obtained by inserting a coring tube driven by hand or machine into each package., note 1: core samples can be used for the determination of yield or fineness, but not fibre length., note 2: the term mini-core sampling is applied to small-scale sampling.

Core-spun yarn ; core yarn
Yarn consisting of a central thread surrounded by staple fibres. The yarn has the strength and elongation of the central thread whilst exhibiting most of the other characteristics of the surface staple fibres., example 1: a sewing thread consisting of a central synthetic continuous-filament yarn surrounded by cotton fibres., example 2: worsted yarn with bulked-nylon core, e.g., typically 1/24s worsted count (37 tex) with approximately 33% of nylon. These yarns are normally produced to give strength and elasticity to the fabric., example 3: a spun yarn from either natural or man-made fibres incorporating an elastomeric core, these yarns are normally used in stretch fabrics.

Count
Methods of variously expressing the specific length or length per unit mass of a yarn. Also termed linear density; number of yarn; yarn count; yarn number; grist.

Count-strength product (csp)
The product of the lea strength, and the actual count of cotton yarn.

Course length (weft-knitted)
The length of yarn in a knitted course.

Course, knitted (fabric)
A row of loops across the width of a fabric.

Cover factor (knitted fabrics)
A number that indicates the extent to which the area of a knitted fabric is covered by the yarn: an indication of the relative looseness or tightness of the knitting.

Covered yarn
A yarn made by feeding one yarn under a controlled degree of tension through the axis or axes of one or more revolving spindles carrying the other (wrapping) yarn(s).

Curing
A process following addition of a finish to textile fabrics in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction. Heat treatment for several minutes has been standard, but higher temperatures for short times (flash-curing) and long times at low temperatures and higher regain (moist curing) are also used.

D

 

Decitex
A unit of the tex system.

Denier
The weight in grams of 9000 metres of a filament or yarn etc. The denier system was common as the standard for all continuous-filament yarns. Yarns spun from man-made staple fibre were usually designated by the count system appropriate to the method of spinning, although the fineness of individual fibres composing the spun yam was denoted by denier. The recommended system is the tex system with the unit of decitex for filament yarns.

Denim
A firm 2/1 or 3/1 right hand twill usually with a colored warp and white or natural weft . Commonly made of cotton or cotton blends in a variety of weights.

Detwisted
Descriptive of a yarn of fibres or filaments from which twist has been removed.

Direct warping
The transference of yarn from a package creel directly on to a beam.

Direct-spun
(1) A term used to describe filaments or yarn produced by direct spinning.,
(2) Descriptive of woollen yarns spun on a mule onto weft bobbins.

Double (yarn)
See folded yarn, also termed plied yarn

Draw mechanism (knitting)
A mechanism on a straight-bar knitting machine for converting rotary motion into reciprocating motion for the purpose of laying the yarn and kinking it round the needles.

Drawn yarn
Extruded yarn that has been subjected to a stretching or drawing process that orients the long-chain molecules of which it is composed in the direction of the filament axis. On further stretching, such yarn acquires elastic extension as compared with the plastic flow of undrawn yarn.

Draw-texturing
A process in which the drawing stage of man-made-yarn manufacture is combined with the texturing process on one machine., note: the drawing and texturing stages may take place in separate, usually consecutive, zones of a machine (sequential draw-texturing) or together in the same zone (simultaneous draw-texturing).

Dull
Descriptive of textile materials, the lustre of which has been reduced.

Dye
A colorant that has substantivity for a substrate, either inherent or induced by reactants.

Dyed & overprinted
Refers to fabrics which have been first piece dyed, then printed in colors that are darker than the dyed ground.

E

 

Ecru (knitting)
Descriptive of fibres, yarns, or fabrics that have not been subjected to processes affecting their natural colour.

Effect threads
Yarns inserted in a fabric that are sufficiently different in fibre, count, or construction to form or enhance a pattern.

Elastane (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres that are composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of segmented polyurethane groups and which rapidly revert substantially to their original length after extension to three times that length.

Elastic fabric
A fabric containing rubber or other elastomeric fibres or threads, having recoverable extensibility in a direction parallel to the elastomeric threads, and characterized by a high resistance to deformation and a high capacity to recover its normal size and shape.

Elastomer
Any polymer having high extensibility together with rapid and substantially complete elastic recovery., note: most fibres formed from elastomers have breaking elongations in excess of one hundred percent.

Elastomeric yarn
A yarn formed from an elastomer.,
Note 1: Elastomeric yarn may either be incorporated into fabric in the bare state or wrapped with relatively inextensible fibres. Wrapping is done by covering (see covered yarn), core spinning or uptwisting.,
Note 2: Examples are elastane and elastodiene yarns.

Elongation
See extension, note: the increase may be expressed in three ways, namely:,
(i) As a length,
(ii) As a percentage of the initial length, and,
(iii) As a fraction of the initial length.

Extension
An increase in length., note: the increase may be expressed in three ways, namely:,
(i) As a length,
(ii) As a percentage of the initial length, and,
(iii) As a fraction of the initial length.

F

 

Fabric (textile)
A manufactured assembly of fibres and/or yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion. , note: fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted, but the term includes assemblies produced by lace-making, tufting, felting, net-making, and the so-called nonwoven processes.

Fabric length
Unless otherwise specified, the usable length of a piece between any truth marks, piece-ends, or numbering, when the fabric is measured laid flat on a table in the absence of tension.

Fabric width
Unless otherwise specified, the distance from edge to edge of a fabric when laid flat on a table without tension. In the case of commercial dispute the measurement should be made after the fabric has been conditioned in a standard atmosphere for testing . When buying and selling fabric it is normal to specify the basis on which the width is to be assessed e.g., overall, within limits, or usable width (which implies within stenter pin marks).

Face-finished (fabric)
Descriptive of a finish, for example, to wool fabrics, in which the face side is treated selectively, as in raising.

Fasciated yarn
A staple fibre yarn that by virtue of is manufacturing technique consists of a core of essentially parallel fibres bound together by wrapper fibres. The current technique of manufacture is often referred to as jet spinning.

Feed roller; feed roll
A roller that forwards a yarn to a subsequent processing or take-UP stage.

Felt
1 A nonwoven fabric made directly from fibers bound together with heat, moisture and mechanical pressure . Usually some wool or animal hair is used.
2. A woven fabric that has been subjected to a heavy fulling process which compresses and shrinks the fabric through heat and pressure hiding the weave and entangling the fibers.

Felting
The matting together of fibres during processing or wear (see milling (fabric finishing)).

Fibre
(1) Textile raw material generally.,
(2) A unit of matter characterized by flexibility, fineness, and high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibre (flax)
Flax cultivated mainly for fibre production as distinct from that cultivated for linseed-oil production linseed-oil production

Fibre length
(A) Crimped length, the distance between the ends of a fibre when substantially freed from external restraint, measured with respect to its general axis of orientation.,
(B) Fibre extent, the distance between two planes which just enclose a fibre without intercepting it, each plane being perpendicular to the direction of the yarn or other assembly of which the fibre forms a part.,
(C) Staple length, a quantity by which a sample of fibrous raw material is characterized as regards its technically most important fibre length., note: the staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of the longer fibres in a hand prepared tuft or 'STAPLE' in its naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). With cotton, on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres when measured in a straightened condition.,
(D) Span length, the extent exceeded by a stated proportion of cotton fibres, e.g., 2.5% span length is the length exceeded by only 2.5% of fibres by number.

Fibre, man-made
A fibre manufactured by man as distinct from a fibre that occurs naturally. fibre, regeneratedv a man-made fibre produced from a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer by a process that includes regeneration of the original polymer structure.

Fibre, synthetic
A man-made fibre produced from a polymer built up by man from chemical elements or compounds, in contrast to fibres made by man from naturally occurring fibre-forming polymers.

Filament
A fibre of indefinite length

Filament blend yarn
A filament yarn which contains separate filaments of two distinct types, the filaments being more or less randomly blended over the cross-section of the yarn.

Filament yarn
A yam composed of one or more filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of one or more filaments are usually referred to as monofilament or multifilament respectively.

Finish
Perfection with which the garment / fabric is completed.

Flannel
An all-WOOL fabric of plain or twill weave with a soft handle. It may be slightly milled and raised.

Flat fabric
A two-dimensional woven or knitted fabric that has no pile loops.

Flat knitting machine
A weft-knitting machine having straight needle beds carrying independently operated latch needles., note 1: rib machines (V-type) have two needle beds, which are opposed to each other in inverted-V formation., note 2: purl machines have two needle beds horizontally opposed in the same plane.

Flat yarn
(1) Descriptive of full drawn continuous-filament yarns substantially without twist and untextured (see also twistless yarn.),
(2) A synonym for straw

Fleece
A fabric with a thick, soft nap or pile resembling sheep's wool. Commonly a knit which has been brushed and sheared but may be woven.
INE, soft, open, and raised structure.

French terry
A knit jersey with loops on one side. Sometimes napped to make fleece.

G

 

Gassed yarn
A yarn that has been passed through a flame or over a heated element to remove surface fibres.

Gating (knitting)
The relative alignment of 2 sets of knitting elements e.g., needles, on knitting machines. Two forms of needle gating (rib and interlock) are common and may be interchangeable on the same machine. Types of gating are:
(a) Interlock gating: interlock gaiting (knitting) - the opposed alignment of one set of needles with the other on a knitting machine.
(b) Purl gating : purl gaiting (knitting), the opposed alignment of tricks of two needle beds lying in the same plane, on a machine equipped with double-headed needles.
(c) Rib gating : rib gaiting (knitting), the alternate alignment of one set of needles with the other on a machine equipped with two sets of needles arranged to knit rib fabrics. Also termed gaiting.

Gauze
A light-weight, open-texture fabric produced in plain weave or simple leno weave.

Generic name
When used here a name to distinguish different classes of textile fibre

H

 

Heat setting
The process of conferring stability of form upon fibres, yarns, or fabrics, usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions.

High count
Refers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric.

High twist
Refers to yarn that are manufactured with a relatively high number of turns per inch . This may be done to increase the yarn strength or to give the fabric a crepey texture or hand.

High/low
1. Pile fabrics that have variation in pile height 2 a corduroy with wales of 2 or more different widths.

High-bulk yarn
A yarn that has been treated mechanically, physically or chemically so as to have a noticeably greater voluminosity or bulk.

High-speed spinning (melt spinning)
A melt spinning process in which filaments are drawn down and collected at high speeds.

Hollow filament
A man-made fibre continuous filament or fibre with a single continuous lumen.

Honeycomb
A pique fabric with a waffle or cellular appearance. May be woven or knit.

Hosiery
(1) Knitted coverings for the feet and legs.,
(2) Formerly in the uk., the term was used in the generic sense of all types of knitted fabrics and, goods made up therefrom.

Hosiery knitting machine
A knitting machine for the production of hosiery. Most are small-diameter latch-needle circular knitting machines

Hot drawing (synthetic filaments and films)
A term applied to the drawing of synthetic filaments or films with the intentional application of external heat.

I

 

Ingrain (filament yarn)
Descriptive of a filament yarn composed of filaments of different colours, the ingrain effect being produced by the random exposure of the differently coloured filaments at the yarn surface.

Ingrain (yarn)
Yarn spun from a mixture of fibres of different colours, where the mixing of coloured fibres is carried , out at an early stage., see also worsted yarns, colour terms

Interlock
A double face knit fabric with 1X1 rib on each side. Usually firm and closely knit.

Interlock, weft-knitted
A double-faced rib-based structure consisting of two 1 x i rib fabrics joined by interlock loops. It is made on machines equipped with two sets of opposed needles, from various materials for a variety of purposes, including outerwear.

Intermingled yarn
A multifilament yarn in which cohesion is imparted to the filament bundle by entwining the filaments instead of, or in addition to, twisting. The effect is usually achieved by passing under light tension through the turbulent zone of an air-jet.,
note 1: Some manufacturers describe such a product as an interlaced yarn.,
note2. Intermingling should be distinguished from air-texturing (see textured yam ) in which a much higher level of entanglement is achieved with the objective of producing texture or bulk.

Intermingling jet
An air-operated device used as an ancillary to some processes of yam extrusion, of drawing and texturing to induce intermingling

J

 

Jacquard
A fabric with a complicated pattern woven or knit into it as part of its structure. For wovens, a jacquard loom is used which controls each warp yarn separately, raising or lowering it as needed during weaving to create the design. For knits a jacquard knitting machine creates the design by controlling whether individual needles knit, tuck, or miss.

Jacquard (warp  knitting)
A term generally applied to a warp-knitting machine with a string-typejacquard placed above to ,control pins placed between specially shaped guides mounted in a normal guide bar. The pins when, raised do not affect the guides but when in a low position deflect individual guides in the guide bar to extend or reduce by one needle space the movement by the pattern chain or pattern wheel. A fall plate .Nay or may not be used. The term is also applied to a machine in which a string jacquard raises individual guides in a guide bar so reducing the lapping movement of these individual guides compared to that applied to the guide bar by the pattern chain or wheel.

Jaquard mechanism (weaving)
A shedding mechanism, attached to a loom, that gives individual control of up to several hundred warp threads and thus enables large figured designs to be produced. (Named after the inventor, joseph marie jacquard, 1752-1834)

Jersey
1. Single knit fabric with an intermeshing of stitches in the same direction on the face and a series of semicircular loops on the back. Thus the 2 sides appear different.
2. A general term referring to any knit fabric without a distinct rib.

Jet spinning
A system of staple-fibre spinning which utilises air to apply the twisting couple to the yarn during its formation. The air is blown through small holes arranged tangentially to the yarn surface and this causes the yarn to rotate. The majority of systems using this technique produce fasciated yarns, but by using two air jets operating in opposing twist directions it is possible to produce yarns with more controlled properties but of more complex structure.

Jet-dyeing machine
(1) A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form in which the fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye-liquor circulated at a high velocity.,
(2) A machine for dyeing garments in which the garments are circulated by jets of liquid rather by mechanical means.

K

 

Kilotex
A unit of the tex system.

Knit
To form a fabric by the intermeshing of loops of yarn.

Knitwear
A term applied in the generic sense to all knitted outer garments except stockings and socks.

L

 

Lamb's wool
Wool obtained from a lamb (A young sheep up to eight months old or up to weaning).

Lawn
A thin, light, crisp, plain weave fabric usually of cotton, cotton bends or linen. More firm than batiste or voile but less firm than organdy.

Lingerie
Feminine underwear, slumberwear and similar garments of fine texture and aesthetic appeal., note: the term, derived from the french 'LIN', referred originally to linen articles, especially ladies' underwear.

Loom
A term used for weaving machine.

Lustre
The display of different intensities of light, reflected both specularly and diffusely from different parts of a surface exposed to the same incident light.

M

 

Man-made fibre
A fibre manufactured by man as distinct from a fibre that occurs naturally.

Matt
See dull.

Melange/heather
A variation in tone or mottled look . May be done by mixing fibers or yarn of different colors together, printing of the top before spinning the yarn, or cross dyeing the fabric.

Mercerization
(1) The treatment of cellulosic textiles in yam or fabric form with a concentrated solution of caustic alkali whereby the fibres are swollen, the strength and dye affinity of the materials are increased, and the handle is modified. The process takes its name from its discoverer, john mercer (1844).

Mercerized
A finishing process for cotton using caustic soda which may be applied at the yarn or fabric stage.

Metal (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres made from any metal.

Metallic
A highly lustrous, reflective fabric that has the appearance of metal. May be coated or made from synthetic yarns in metallic colors.

Microfiber
Extremely fine synthetic fiber used to produce soft, lightweight fabrics . Microfiber is often defined as fibers of less than 1 denier per filament but the term is used loosely in the industry. May be polyester, nylon, acrylic, rayon or other fibers. Used for rainwear, outerwear and various other types of apparel.

Monofilament yarn
A yam composed of one filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of more than one filament are usually referred to as multifilament .

Multi-filament yarn
A yam composed of filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of one filament are usually referred to as monofilament .

Muslin
A generic name for a light-weight, open fabric of plain or simple leno weave traditionally with a cover factor of 5- 10 in the warp and 5-9 in the weft. Normally, muslins did not exceed 2 oz/YD2 (68 g.M-2)). Some of these fabrics are used in the grey state (butter muslin and cheese cloth), whereas others (dress muslins) are bleached and dyed.

N

 

Natural
Refers to the color of the fiber as found in nature, i.e. unbleached and undyed. Linen and linen blends are often sold in their natural brown color.

Natural & color
Refers to yarn dye fabrics which combine natural yarns and colored yarns in the design.

Nylon (synthetic fibre) (generic name)
See polyamide (synthetic fibre)

O

 

Open end
A high speed yarn spinning process that creates yarn by transferring twist from previously formed yarn to fiber or sliver continuously fed into the spinning machine. The twisting may be done by mechanical methods, rotors or air jets.

Overdyed
Dyeing of a print or yarn dyed fabric in a shade which does not totally cover the original design.

P

 

 

Partially oriented yarn - poy
A continuous-filament  yam made by extruding a synthetic polymer so that a substantial degree of molecular orientation is present in the resulting filaments, but further molecular orientation is possible. Note.1, the resulting yarn will usually require a positive draw-ratio in subsequent processing in order to orient fully the molecular structure and optimize tensile properties. Note 2: yarns of this type made by high-speed spinning are commonly used as a feedstock for producing draw-textured yarns.

Pique
A fabric characterized by a prominent, all-over geometric texture. It is most commonly woven on a dobby loom but it is also produced as a double knit. The most common textures are cords ( either vertical or horizontal) , birdseye, waffle, honeycomb and bullseye. Produced in a variety of weights and fibers.

Plied
Refers to a yarn consisting of 2 or more single yarns twisted together.

Polyester
A polymer whose repeating units contain ester linkages in the main chains of the macromolecules. , note: cross-linkable polyesters are resin-forming and linear polyesters are fibre-forming

Polyester (fibre) (genric name)
A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (BY mass) of an ester of a diol and benzene-1,4-DICARBOXYLIC acid (Terephthalic  acid)., note 1: this term is more restrictive than the chemical definition of polyester note 2.. In the u.S., the generic term is more broadly defined to encompass the use of aromatic dicarboxylic acids other than benzene- 1,4-DICARBOXYLIC acid and also to include certain aromatic polyetherester fibres.

Polyethylene (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules of unsubstituted aliphatic saturated hydrocarbon.

Polyolefin (fibre)
A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethene (ethylene), propene (propylene), or other olefin units. The term includes the iso generic names are polypropylene and polyethylene

Producer twist
The small amount of twist inserted during the production of multi-filament yarn by certain take-UP systems such as pot, cap, or ring-and-traveler.

Q

 

Quench
A cooling zone in which the temperature of melt-spun filaments is lowered very rapidly and/OR at a controlled rate soon after extrusion. The two main types are water-quench and air-quench.

Quilted
Two or more layers of fabric which have been stitched through, often with batting . The stitching forms a pattern, most commonly a square or diamond shape. Used for apparel, bedspreads, sleeping bags.

R

 

Raschel
Refers to knit fabric made a a raschel machine, a warp knitting machine capable of a wide variety of intricate designs, various surface textures, and open work effects.

Raschel lace
A lace fabric knit on a raschel machine. Usually moderately priced.

Rib
1. Any fabric with a cord or ridge effect .
2. A knit fabric made with plain stitches alternating with purl stitches. Rib knits have natural stretch properties.

S

 

Semi-dull
Refers to fabric from manufactured yarn that has been delustered to reduce but not completely eliminate the shine.

Setting
The process of conferring stability of form upon fibres, yarns, or fabrics, usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions. Note: the term is sometimes used in conjunction with a description of the particular characteristics to be stabilized (i.g., twist setting, crimp setting) or of the setting medium (i.e., heat setting, steam setting).

Shaker
A heavy 1X1 rib knit.

Shrink-resistant; shrink-resistant; shrink-resist
Descriptive of textile materials that exhibit dimensional stability conforming to specified standards based on tests designed to simulate normal conditions of usage. Note: this property may be an inherent property of the textile material or may be conferred by physical or chemical processes or both.

Spandex (fibre) (US)
A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polymer comprised of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane. The iso generic name is elastane.

Stitch length (knitting)
The length of yarn in a knitted loop.

Stitch transfer
A method of shaping a garment panel on a flat knitting machine by transferring selvedge loops from one needle bed to the other in a sequence designed to increase or decrease the width of the fabric over a given number of courses.

Stretch 2 way
Refers to a woven or knit fabric with elastic properties in both directions, usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch fabric
A fabric characterized by a capacity for stretch and recovery from stretch. Note: the term is used for materials with greater extension and recovery properties than traditional woven or knitted structures from conventional yarns and implies the use of stretch yarns, elastomeric threads, or finishing treatments. Such fabrics may have different degrees of extensibility and recovery specified for particular uses.

Stretch in warp
Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the warp direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the warp.

Stretch in weft
Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the weft ( filling) direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the weft.

Stretch knit
Refers to any knit fabric with elastic properties usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch lace
Refers to a lace fabric with elastic properties, usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch spinning
A process of spinning whereby the filaments are substantially stretched at some stage between spinning (extrusion) and collection. The term is applied specifically to a process involving substantial stretch in order to provide high- tenacity yam.

Stretch yarn
Yarn capable of a pronounced degree of stretch and recovery from stretch.

Synthetic fibre
A man-made fibre produced from a polymer built up by man from chemical elements or compounds, in contrast to fibres made by man from naturally occurring fibre-forming  polymers.

T

 

Tenacity
The maximum stress developed in a specimen stretched to rupture. The force is usually related to the area of the unstrained specimen. If the actual stress, defined in terms of the area of the strained specimen, is used, then its maximum value is called the actual breaking stress.

Terry
A fabric with uncut loops on one or both sides . May be woven or knit. Used for toweling, robes. Knit versions such as french terry have loops on one side and are sometimes brushed to produce a fleece.

Tex
The basic unit of the tex system.

Textile
Originally a woven fabric but the term is now applied to fibres, filaments, or yarns, natural man-made, and products obtained from them. Note: for example, threads, cords, ropes, braids, lace, embroidery, nets, and fabrics made by weaving, knitting, felting, bonding, and tufting are textiles. Used as an adjective, descriptive of fibrous or filamentous manufactures and of the raw materials, processes, machines, buildings, and personnel used in the organizations connected with, and the technology of, their manufacture.

Textured yarn
A continuous-filament yam that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other fine distortions along the lengths of the filaments.

Thick & thin
A fabric with a mottled appearance, made from a filament yarn with varying thickness.

Thread count
Is theIs the number of warp and weft yarns in one square-inch  of a fabric (warp yarn x weft yarn per sq. Inch)

Trendng
Fashion is not static, they are constantly moving, their movement has a definite direction. The direction in which fashion moves is called fashion trend.

Tricot
A common warp knit fabric with thin wales on the face and crosswise ribs on the back . Generally made of synthetic yarns such as polyester, nylon, acetate or rayon.

Tubular
A knit fabric made on a circular knitting machine and shipped without being slit to open width form.

Tuck stitch
A knit stitch that results in open spaces at regular intervals on the fabric by having some needles hold more than one loop at a time.

Tweed
Originally a coarse, heavy-weight, rough-surfaced wool fabric for outerwear, woven in southern scotland. The term is now applied to fabrics made in a wide range of weights and qualities from woollen-spun yams in a variety of weave effects and colour-and-weave effects .

Twillngill weave, a basic weave characterized by diagonal lines on the face of the fabric.

U

 

Undrawn yarn
Extruded filament yarn (OR tow), the component macromolecules of which have a low degrExtruded filament yarn (or tow), the component macromolecules of which have a low degree of orientation. Note: undrawn yarn and tow represent intermediate stages in the production of some synthetic yams and staple fibres respectively.

Union yarnent fibres.

V

 

Velour
A KnitA knit or woven fabric with A knit or woven fabric with a soft , short thick nap made by brushing and shearing. Knit velours are used In women's tops and sportswear. wovensare usually heavier In weight and used For coats, jackets, drapery.

Viscose
The solution obtained by dissolving sodium cellulose xanthate in a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).

Viscose (fibre) (generic Name )
A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by the viscose process.

W

 

Wale (knitting)
A column of loops along the length of a fabric.

Warp (uk, local, chain)
Used as a noun -
(1) threads lengthways in a fabric as woven.
(1) Threads lengthways in a fabric as woven.
(2) A number of threads in long lengths and approximately parallel, in various forms intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing, or lacemaking.

Warp dressing a ball warp, beam warp, or chain warp immediately prior to weaving.

Warp knit
A fabric produced by interlocking loops in a lengthwise direction . Warp knits tend to be flatter, smoother, more run resistant, and more stable than weft knits . Examples are tricot, raschel and milanese.

Warp knitting
A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means in which the loops made from each warp thread are formed substantially along the length of the fabric. It is characterized by the fact that each warp thread is fed more or less in line with the direction in which the fabric is produced.

Warp print
The warp yarns are printed with a design before weaving. After weaving the design then has a hazy shadowy effect.

Weave
The pattern of interlacing of warp and weft in a woven fabric

Weft
(1) Threads widthways in a fabric as woven.
(2) Yarn intended for use as in (1).

Weft carrier
A yarn carrier providing a supply of weft and driven positively through a shed in a weaving machine.

Weft knit
The most common type of knit formed by interlocking loops in the widthwise direction . Weft knit tend to have more stretch than warp knits. Examples are interlock, jerseys, double knits, rib knits.

Weft knitting
A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means in which the loops made by each weft thread are formed substantially across the width of the fabric. It is characterized by the fact that each weft thread is fed more or less at right angles to the direction in which the fabric is produced.

Winder
A machine used for transferring yam from one package to another.wrinkle resistant

Wrinkle resistant
A fabric that has been treated to resist the formation of wrinkles.

Y

 

Yarn
A product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibres and/or filament(S) with or without twist.
Note 1: assemblies of fibres or filaments are usually given other names during the stages that lead to the production of yarn, e.G., tow, slubbing, sliver, or roving. Except in the case of continuous-filaments or tape yarns, any tensile strength possessed by the assemblies at these stages is generally the minimum that can hold them together during processing.
Note 2: staple, continuous filament, and mono-filament yarns are included. Note 2: Staple, continuous filament, and mono-filament yarns are included.
Note 3: No distinction is made between single, folded and cabled yarns.
Note 4: Zero-twist continuous filament yarns are included.
Note 5: Zero-twist and self-twist staple yarn are included.
Note 6: By the definition of fibre and filament, paper, metal, film and glass yarns are included.

Yarn countth or length per unit mass of a yarn. Also termed linear density; number of yarn; yarn count; yarn number; grist.

Yarn dyed
Fabrics which have had the yarns colored before the fabric is woven. Used to produce stripes plaids or tapestries.

Yarn dyed and overdyed
A fabric which has been first yarn dyed, then piece dyed in a lighter shade that allows the yarn dye pattern to show through.

Yarn linear density
The coarseness or fineness of yarn or other linear textile material.

Yarn setting
The process of conferring stability of form upon yarns usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions.

Yarn, cable
Two or more folded yarns twisted together in one or more operations.

Yarn, combination
A yarn in which there are dissimilar component yams especially when these are of fibre and filaments.
(1) descriptive of full drawn continuous-filament yarns substantially without twist and(1) Descriptive of full drawn continuous-filament yarns substantially without twist and untextured (see also twistless yarn.)
(2) A synonym for straw (see  yarn, straw)

Yarn, singlene or of a silk reel.

Yarn, spun
Commonly used to describe a yarn that consists of staple fibres held together (usually) by twist.

Yarn, straw
Extruded monofilament yarns that have the cross-section and appearance of natural strawExtruded monofilament yarns that have the cross-section and appearance of natural straw.

Yarn, zero-twist
(1) A continuous-filament single yarn in which there is no twist,
(2) A multi-fold  yarn in which there is no folding twist.
Note 1: Some fibrous yarns are described as twistless, since the fibres may be held together by adhesive temporarily e.g., until incorporated in fabrics. Varieties of core-spun yarn and scaffolding yarn have appeared with this description after solvent-removal of one component.
Note 2.. Zero-twist continuous-filament yams usually become twisted by over-end withdrawal e.g., from a pirn in a loom shuttle A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in one operation, e.g., two-fold yarn, three-fold yarn, etc. Note: in some sections of the textile industry, e.g., the marketing of hand-knitting yams, these yarns are referred to as two-ply, three-ply, etc.

Yarns, fancy
A yarn that differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities relate to an increased input of one or more of its components or to the inclusion of periodic effects such as knots, loops, curls, slubs or the like.

Z

 

Zero-twist yarn
(1) a continuous-filament single yarn in which there is no twist, (1) A continuous-filament single yarn in which there is no twist,
(2) A multi-fold yarn in which there is no folding twist.
Note 1: Some fibrous yarns are described as twistless, since the fibres may be held together by adhesive temporarily e.g., until incorporated in fabrics. Varieties of core-spun  yarn and scaffolding yarn have appeared with this description after solvent-removal of one component. bsp; withdrawal e.g., from a pirn in a loom shuttle